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The human knee is constrained and stabilized by four major knee ligaments.

The collateral ligaments are on either side of the knee and prevent instability or excess motion in the side to side (varus to valgus) plane.

The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments lie in the very centre of the knee joint itself and give stability in the front to back (anterior posterior) plane.

There are smaller “accessory” ligaments, which are mostly thickenings of the joint capsule which support the functions of the four major knee ligaments.

Any one of the knee ligaments can be injured in isolation or in combination with other ligaments or soft tissue and bony structures of the knee.

These injuries can be the result of direct trauma, sporting activities, or simply low velocity injuries in which all the forces are going in the wrong direction at the wrong time.

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